human trafficking, empirical studies, metaphor, storytelling, image schemas, sensory language, pedagogical challenges, social sciences, awareness, immersive teaching


This paper meets challenges in exploring the problems of human trafficking awareness among Ukrainian youth under war conditions. The mission of this social and pedagogical linguistic initiative has been reconsidered in the framework of the CEFRES fellowship, given the general and specific pre-conditions of vulnerability to human trafficking among Ukrainian youth. The paper highlights physical, psychological, technical, and pedagogical difficulties and offers solutions for resilient research. Attention is drawn to adjusting the methods under limitations such as a reduced sample of volunteering respondents and measuring the war impact. The solutions include accumulating empirical data for significant measurements for two academic years and upcoming surveying possibilities regarding the “war vs. no war” factors. Other outcomes of tackling impediments imply the possibility of retaining students’ attention to human trafficking under war conditions through immersive experiences and reflexive activities with simultaneous collecting empirical data, introducing the awareness activities into the e-course (Moodle), and encouraging students to explore cases and evaluate the message. These solutions can help filter the significant results under four parameters of the CEFRES-supported project such as metaphor, storytelling, schemata, and sensory language for registering effective ways of immersive learning experiences.


Download data is not yet available.


Alemika, E., & Ifeakandu, I. O. (2019). An examination of the elements of transportation, enslavement and exploitation in trafficking in human beings under international and Nigeria anti-trafficking laws. Beijing Law Review, 10(04), 1116–1135.

Bahous, S. (2022, July 30). Statement: Crises drive an increase in human trafficking – Here’s how we stop it. Unwomen.Org.

Bauer-Babef, C., & Bauer-Babef, C. (2022, November 30). Trafficking and sexual the exploitation of Ukrainian refugees is on the rise.

Cefres. (2023, May 29). Elina Paliichuk: Research & CV. CEFRES.

Cheetham, A. L., & Hurst, I. A. (2022). Human trafficking. Pediatric Emergency Care, 38(4), 167–171.

Chesnokova, A. (2016). Chapter 6. Empirical stylistics in an EFL teaching context. Linguistic Approaches to Literature.

Darkweb Intelligence. (2022, June 28). Anti-Human Trafficking Intelligence Initiative.

Dickenson, V. (2022). Using the Virtual World to Teach About Human Trafficking. Paths to the Prevention and Detection of Human Trafficking, 266–285.

Escalas, J. E. (2004). Imagine yourself in the product: Mental simulation, narrative transportation, and persuasion. Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 37–48.

Gerrig, R. (2018). Experiencing narrative worlds. In No Title (1st ed.). Routledge.

Ghansah, J. (2013). New Slavery; The Unrecognized Relationship Between Trafficked Victims and Migrant Workers in The U.S. Prescott College.

Greenemeier, L. (2015). February 8. Human Traffickers Caught on Hidden Internet. Scientific American.

How we’re helping protect Ukrainian refugees from human traffickers. Ukraine | World Vision International.

Human traffickers exploit the desperation of Ukrainian refugees. (2022, November 16). PBS NewsHour.

Human-Trafficking. United Nations : Office on Drugs and Crime.

International Criminal Court. (2023, March 17). Situation in Ukraine: ICC judges issue arrest warrants against Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin and Maria Alekseyevna Lvova-Belova [Press release].

Jacobs, E. M., Deligianni, F., & Pollick, F. (2023) (in press). Threat Perception Modulation by Capturing Emotion, Motor, and Empathetic SystemResponses: A Systematic Review. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTING COMPUTING.

Jacon-Duffy, M. (2020, January 11). What does human trafficking look like? Ohio Justice & Policy Center.

Johnson, M. (2005). “The Philosophical Significance of Image Schemas”. In: Beate Hampe (eds.) From Perception to Meaning: Image Schemas in Cognitive Linguistics, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (2003). Metaphors We Live By (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press.

Lazareva, I. (2023, January 10). Raped, abused, exploited: Ukrainian women seeking refuge in Israel find no haven. Times of Israel.

Mackin, A. (2021, March 15). The Darknet: A Safe Haven for Human Trafficking. One Bread Foundation, Inc.

Martin, H. M., & Smith, L. M. (2015). Historical overview and demographic analysis of human trafficking in the USA. International Journal of Public Law and Policy, 5(3), 219.

McSweeney, Kerry (1998). The Languages Of The Senses: Sensory-Perceptual Dynamics In Wordsworth, Coleridge, Thoreau, Whitman, And Dickinson. Liverpool University Press.

Miall, D. (2011). Emotions and the structuring of narrative responses. Poetics Today, 32(2), 323–348.

Ortega, J., Gordon, M. R., Gordon-Achebe, K., & Robitz, R. A. (2022). Survivors of Human Trafficking. Springer EBooks, 33–56.

Paliichuk, E. (2011). Linguistic and Conceptual Peculiarities of Human Trafficking Situation in Modern English-Language Media Discourse [Unpublished MA thesis]. National Kyiv University

Paliichuk, E. (2018). A Visual Narrative in WHTV Project. [2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference “Theoretical and Applied Linguistics”, Kyiv-Bialystok, Ukraine-Poland, on 16-17 November].

Paliichuk, E. (2022). A Spiderweb of Human Trafficking: Dimensions and Perceptions. A Book of Abstracts.

Paliichuk, E. (2022). A transportation effect of sensory human trafficking storytelling. [IX International Conference Language, Culture and Mind University of Almería Hybrid 4-7 July 2022].

Paliichuk, E. (2022). Cognitive “warning signs” in human trafficking media texts. Crossroads. A Journal of English Studies, 38, 41–65.

Paliichuk, E. (2022). Once upon a time: Is there a happy end in a human trafficking story? In [A poster].

Paliichuk, E. (2023). A spiderweb of human trafficking: an empirical linguistic study. Crossroads. A Journal of English Studies [A Revised Manuscript].

Paliichuk, E. (2023). Spiderweb [Dataset].

Proposal for a Council Implementing Decision establishing the existence of a mass influx of displaced persons from Ukraine within the meaning of Article 5 of Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001, and having the effect of introducing temporary protection, COM(2022) 91 final

Reis, T., Gibbs, J. L., Howard, D. L., & Strohacker, E. (2022). Prostitute or human trafficking victim? Police discernment of human trafficking. Policing, 45(2), 334–345.

Tondo, L. (2022, July 7). Ukraine prosecutors uncover sex trafficking ring preying on women fleeing the country. The Guardian.

Types of human trafficking.

Van Peer, W., Hakemulder, F., & Zyngier, S. (2012). Scientific methods for the humanities. Weaving a Web of Wonder. Research Matters.

Wang, V., Gee, J., & Button, M. (2022). Crime on the Darknet: The Case of Brand Abuse. The Handbook of Security, 447–467.

Williams, K., & Muhammad, J. in press. How Does the Dark Web Influence Human (and Sex) Trafficking?: What Security Implementations are Involved in the Dark Web? ADMI’21, 10284706.

Winter, B. (2019). Sensory Linguistics. Van Haren Publishing.

Zhang, S. X. (2009). Beyond the ‘Natasha’ story – a review and critique of current research on sex trafficking. Global Crime, 10(3), 178–195.


Abstract views: 31



How to Cite

Paliichuk, E. (2023). HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND WAR IN UKRAINE: RESILIENCE IN EXPLORING STUDENT RESPONSE . The Modern Higher Education Review, (8), 170–185.