The Modern Higher Education Review en-US (Nohovska Svitlana) (Електронна скринька журналу) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 CASE STUDY: THE DIDACTIC MODEL OF SOCIO-COGNITIVE THEORY OF LEARNING IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. TEACHING STATE AND ACTIVITY VERBS <p>Language has generally been characterized as a tool of communication between people, the mean by which man expresses his feelings and thoughts. It has been the subject of research from various angles and methodological standards that largely reflect the variety of dimensions from which it can be studied but also the prevailing analysis trends. Language is also seen as a social process, as a way of creating interpersonal relationships and expressing emotions. Therefore, integrated language teaching takes into account the social character of the language and relies on it. The linguistic and cultural diversity within the European Union has created new demands for multilingual European citizens. To meet the new requirements, it is necessary, educational strategies to be designed by those who actively involved in foreign language education in various countries in a new context, which will ensure the “productivity” of learning foreign languages in the implementation of foreign language education. There is an urgent need to promote the process of communicative teaching, so that the student who learns the specific foreign language transmits his own concepts, in the cases, interacting and trying to adapt to the common knowledge and even the linguistic ability of a person that this language is&nbsp;his/her mother tongue. The&nbsp;approach to&nbsp;the&nbsp;service of&nbsp;the&nbsp;communicative type of&nbsp;teaching emphasizes the&nbsp;communicative function of&nbsp;the&nbsp;language and&nbsp;tries to&nbsp;create in&nbsp;the&nbsp;students the&nbsp;opportunities for&nbsp;functional use of&nbsp;the&nbsp;language code, similar to&nbsp;those they will encounter outside the&nbsp;classroom.<br>Students need to&nbsp;connect with each other to&nbsp;build friendly relationships within the&nbsp;classroom that becomes a&nbsp;student community. This effort also includes this paper, which introduces the&nbsp;model of&nbsp;socio-cognitive learning theory in&nbsp;the&nbsp;context of&nbsp;the&nbsp;communicative approach to&nbsp;the&nbsp;teaching and&nbsp;learning of&nbsp;foreign languages.</p> Georgios Pappas Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS: MODERN APPROACHES TO LEARNING <p>The article is&nbsp;devoted to&nbsp;the&nbsp;issue of&nbsp;approaches to&nbsp;learning used by&nbsp;prospective teachers. The&nbsp;key difference between two main approaches to&nbsp;learning&nbsp;— deep and&nbsp;surface&nbsp;— lies in&nbsp;the&nbsp;intention or&nbsp;absence of&nbsp;intention to&nbsp;understand the&nbsp;material. Deep approach to&nbsp;learning is&nbsp;likely to&nbsp;result in&nbsp;a high level of&nbsp;understanding and&nbsp;better learning outcomes while surface approach leads to&nbsp;ineffective learning. Understanding students’ approaches to&nbsp;learning helps adjust teaching strategies for&nbsp;more effective learning. The&nbsp;purpose of&nbsp;the&nbsp;article is&nbsp;to identify the&nbsp;approaches to&nbsp;learning used by&nbsp;prospective teachers and&nbsp;consider the&nbsp;implications for&nbsp;teacher trainers. The&nbsp;article reports findings of&nbsp;a survey study into the&nbsp;approaches to&nbsp;learning used by&nbsp;prospective teachers of&nbsp;the&nbsp;Ukrainian language and&nbsp;literature mastering English as&nbsp;a&nbsp;specialism at&nbsp;a Ukrainian university. The&nbsp;main research tool was a&nbsp;questionnaire consisting of&nbsp;twenty statements. Ten statements concerning deep approach include such aspects as&nbsp;deep approach per se, relating ideas, use of&nbsp;evidence, intrinsic motivation. The&nbsp;other ten statements relate to&nbsp;surface approach and&nbsp;include such subscales as&nbsp;surface approach proper, syllabus boundness, fear of&nbsp;failure, extrinsic motivation.<br>The respondents were asked to express how much they agreed with the statements using Likert scale. The data were analysed to find out mean scores and standard deviation. The findings demonstrate that students employ both approaches almost equally intensely: the mean scores of the Deep Learning Approach and the Surface Learning Approach scales are 3.64 and 3.34 correspondingly. However, according to the evaluation criteria the figures fall into different categories: deep approach has a&nbsp;high level of&nbsp;prevalence while surface approach has a&nbsp;moderate one. Basing on&nbsp;the&nbsp;obtained results, the&nbsp;authors suggest that teacher trainers should pay more attention to&nbsp;promoting deep learning approach through applying effective instructional strategies which improve the&nbsp;quality of&nbsp;learning; fostering students’ personal interest in&nbsp;learning; changing the&nbsp;focus of&nbsp;the&nbsp;assessment system from&nbsp;reproducing to&nbsp;understanding.</p> Iryna Khalymon, Svitlana Shevchenko Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SYNERGETIC PRINCIPLES OF MODERNIZATION OF TEACHING NATURAL DISCIPLINES FORMS IN HIGHER MEDICAL EDUCATION <p>The educational system is&nbsp;a synergetic system; it&nbsp;is&nbsp;an open, nonlinear, dynamic and&nbsp;complex system. The&nbsp;importance of&nbsp;synergetics for&nbsp;education and&nbsp;science is&nbsp;associated with the&nbsp;possibility of&nbsp;creating a&nbsp;transdisciplinary dialogue, more effective study of&nbsp;interdisciplinary links, using this interdisciplinary direction for&nbsp;a&nbsp;deep understanding of&nbsp;the&nbsp;unity of&nbsp;laws of&nbsp;nature and&nbsp;society, and&nbsp;thus personal development as&nbsp;the&nbsp;ultimate goal of&nbsp;all educational activities. Reforming and&nbsp;modernizing of&nbsp;higher education in&nbsp;Ukraine, increasing the&nbsp;importance of&nbsp;independent work of&nbsp;students in&nbsp;the&nbsp;total amount of&nbsp;classroom and&nbsp;extracurricular training have led to&nbsp;priority interest in&nbsp;the&nbsp;introduction of&nbsp;e-learning content and&nbsp;other components of&nbsp;distance and&nbsp;telematics education, focused on&nbsp;ensuring compliance of&nbsp;national educational standards with international requirements and&nbsp;full participation of&nbsp;Ukraine in&nbsp;the&nbsp;development of&nbsp;European and&nbsp;world educational area. This article outlines the&nbsp;introduction stages of&nbsp;the&nbsp;latest technologies for&nbsp;teaching medical and&nbsp;biological physics with adequate reflection of&nbsp;the&nbsp;specifics of&nbsp;the&nbsp;pedagogical process in&nbsp;higher medical education in&nbsp;Ukraine.<br>The&nbsp;rational combination of&nbsp;the&nbsp;latest technologies and&nbsp;classical methods of&nbsp;teaching natural sciences promotes mutual synergistic strengthening of&nbsp;the&nbsp;effects of&nbsp;their application and&nbsp;minimizes cognitive dissonance and&nbsp;disproportion of&nbsp;information needs and&nbsp;proposals in&nbsp;higher medical education of&nbsp;Ukraine.<br>The article also tackles the&nbsp;issue of&nbsp;distance learning courses and&nbsp;programs by&nbsp;the&nbsp;world’s leading higher education institutions that have resulted in&nbsp;a significant increase in&nbsp;the&nbsp;number of&nbsp;Ukrainian higher education institutions that actively develop and&nbsp;use e-learning Internet resources and&nbsp;other forms of&nbsp;distance learning.</p> Alexander Chalyi, Oleksii Sysoiev, Kyrylo Chalyy, Inna Kryvenko, Albina Kryshtopa, Boris Koval Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 LOGICAL AND RATIONAL COMPONENT OF MODERN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS <p>The formation of&nbsp;a new historical type of&nbsp;personality requires appropriate changes in&nbsp;the&nbsp;content of&nbsp;education, means of&nbsp;the&nbsp;set tasks’ implementation and&nbsp;the&nbsp;organization of&nbsp;the&nbsp;education system itself. Achieving this goal is&nbsp;impossible without the&nbsp;formation of&nbsp;a high intellectual culture of&nbsp;a person and&nbsp;the&nbsp;ability of&nbsp;the&nbsp;individual to&nbsp;its&nbsp;further continuous improvement. However, nowadays the&nbsp;role and&nbsp;place of&nbsp;cultural and&nbsp;anthropological factors, as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;logical and&nbsp;rational ones, are often underestimated in&nbsp;the&nbsp;modernization process of&nbsp;the&nbsp;society.<br>The proposed article emphasizes the&nbsp;need to&nbsp;reveal the&nbsp;role of&nbsp;logical and&nbsp;rational component as&nbsp;a&nbsp;necessary part of&nbsp;the&nbsp;modern educational process and&nbsp;the&nbsp;way to&nbsp;improve mental culture through education.<br>It is&nbsp;noted that the&nbsp;level of&nbsp;modern culture of&nbsp;thinking, rational reasoning, the&nbsp;ability to&nbsp;conduct constructive dialogues has fallen significantly. The&nbsp;inability and&nbsp;unwillingness of&nbsp;many members of&nbsp;society to&nbsp;analyze situations critically, lack of&nbsp;skills to&nbsp;express their opinions consistently and&nbsp;reasonably, to&nbsp;persuade their fellow citizens in&nbsp;a rational and&nbsp;logical way can lead to&nbsp;barbarism. The&nbsp;results of&nbsp;hours’ reduction in&nbsp;logic disciplines at&nbsp;the&nbsp;University are given. This fact is&nbsp;reflected in&nbsp;the&nbsp;inability of&nbsp;students to&nbsp;establish the&nbsp;relationship of&nbsp;genus and&nbsp;species, causal relationships between objects and&nbsp;phenomena, to&nbsp;make classifications. The&nbsp;need for&nbsp;logic knowledge, which helps to&nbsp;identify false information, to&nbsp;reveal logical errors, is&nbsp;indicated.</p> <p>Emphasis is&nbsp;placed on&nbsp;the&nbsp;importance of&nbsp;high appreciation of&nbsp;rationality. It&nbsp;has its&nbsp;origins in&nbsp;antiquity and&nbsp;finds its&nbsp;expression in&nbsp;ancient philosophy. Ancient philosophers proceeded from&nbsp;the&nbsp;fact that the&nbsp;world can be&nbsp;comprehended only with the&nbsp;help of&nbsp;reason and&nbsp;rational methods, based on&nbsp;the&nbsp;power of&nbsp;persuasion, thought.<br>The role of&nbsp;language as&nbsp;a&nbsp;cultural phenomenon is&nbsp;emphasized. Cultural phenomenon in&nbsp;combination with consciousness, mental and&nbsp;cognitive processes is&nbsp;impossible without the&nbsp;rational use of&nbsp;the&nbsp;laws of&nbsp;logic.</p> Nataliia Khanykina, Tetiana Bondar Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF SCIENCE AND THE SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY — DIFFICULTIES AND OPPORTUNITIES <p>It is&nbsp;evident that, especially in&nbsp;the&nbsp;recent decades, the&nbsp;scientific institutions have strongly evolved and&nbsp;modified their structures in&nbsp;order to&nbsp;be&nbsp;adapted to&nbsp;the&nbsp;changing socio-cultural environment as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;to be&nbsp;more aware of&nbsp;the&nbsp;need to&nbsp;generate new knowledge in&nbsp;order to&nbsp;support the&nbsp;economic growth. Social sciences tried to&nbsp;interpret the&nbsp;process of&nbsp;institutionalization of&nbsp;science in&nbsp;the&nbsp;academic world in&nbsp;various ways, analyzing the&nbsp;social components of&nbsp;the&nbsp;process of&nbsp;creating the&nbsp;knowledge.<br>The&nbsp;approach in&nbsp;social sciences is&nbsp;primarily characterized by&nbsp;the&nbsp;study of&nbsp;the&nbsp;level of&nbsp;institutionalization that enables the&nbsp;study of&nbsp;the&nbsp;features that, in&nbsp;turn, define science as&nbsp;a&nbsp;social institution. This approach is&nbsp;useful in&nbsp;the&nbsp;study of&nbsp;higher education systems because the&nbsp;institutionalized principles make the&nbsp;structure of&nbsp;an organization and&nbsp;primarily provide the&nbsp;information about what regulates the&nbsp;formation of&nbsp;a university and&nbsp;not only about what regulates the&nbsp;behavior of&nbsp;an individual.<br>The&nbsp;organization of&nbsp;the&nbsp;university is&nbsp;a clear example to&nbsp;understand the&nbsp;changes that are taking place in&nbsp;social institutions based on&nbsp;scientific and&nbsp;technological knowledge.<br>In&nbsp;fact, in&nbsp;recent decades, universities have changed the&nbsp;way they organize their activities. The&nbsp;new requirements favor the&nbsp;reorganization of&nbsp;the&nbsp;knowledge creation process which has significant consequences for&nbsp;changes in&nbsp;the&nbsp;internal structure of&nbsp;a science institution.</p> <p>This article focuses on&nbsp;the&nbsp;analysis of&nbsp;the&nbsp;process of&nbsp;institutionalization of&nbsp;science. This approach to&nbsp;science is&nbsp;primarily characterized by&nbsp;the&nbsp;analysis of&nbsp;the&nbsp;features that define science as&nbsp;a&nbsp;social institution. In&nbsp;this context, the&nbsp;most important challenges and&nbsp;difficulties related to&nbsp;these processes in&nbsp;a globalized world are presented.</p> Jarosław Charchuła Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS <p>The article considers the issue of education of students with disabilities in higher education institutions. It emphasizes the importance and features of social and pedagogical support that takes into consideration the main points that cause difficulties in this category in obtaining educational services. The article defines the perspective ways of solving the problems that concern the organization of support to students with disabilities in the environment of higher education institutions. Understanding the essence of social and pedagogical support of students with disabilities in higher education institutions involves, first of all, knowledge of the specifics of various types of developmental disorders, identifying existing problems, needs and&nbsp;opportunities of&nbsp;such students as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;creating appropriate conditions in&nbsp;the&nbsp;educational environment.<br>The growing number of&nbsp;people with disabilities in&nbsp;Ukraine raises a&nbsp;number of&nbsp;issues related to&nbsp;their adaptation, socialization, including education and&nbsp;employment. A&nbsp;special place in&nbsp;the&nbsp;system of&nbsp;higher education in&nbsp;Ukraine is&nbsp;occupied by&nbsp;the&nbsp;integrated form of&nbsp;education of&nbsp;students with disabilities together with other students, the&nbsp;main condition of&nbsp;which is&nbsp;to ensure equal access to&nbsp;education, extracurricular activities and&nbsp;equal rights to&nbsp;obtain the&nbsp;higher education.<br>The important component of&nbsp;the&nbsp;process of&nbsp;integration of&nbsp;youth with disabilities into society is&nbsp;the&nbsp;creation of&nbsp;appropriate conditions for&nbsp;learning and&nbsp;development of&nbsp;students with disabilities in&nbsp;higher education institutions, acquisition of&nbsp;knowledge, skills and&nbsp;competencies. In&nbsp;modern conditions, the&nbsp;accessibility of&nbsp;higher education for&nbsp;people with disabilities is&nbsp;an acute social and&nbsp;pedagogical problem which is&nbsp;associated with the&nbsp;formation of&nbsp;a holistic vision and&nbsp;the&nbsp;specifics of&nbsp;the&nbsp;socio-pedagogical process.</p> Tеtiana Spirina, Barbara Grabowska, Tеtiana Liakh Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL LEADERSHIP: CRITERIA, INDICATORS AND LEVELS OF FORMATION IN FUTURE SOCIAL WORKERS <p>Nowadays it&nbsp;is&nbsp;extremely important for&nbsp;society to&nbsp;be&nbsp;aware of&nbsp;the&nbsp;professional and&nbsp;experienced professional training of&nbsp;the&nbsp;future social workers. The&nbsp;article is&nbsp;devoted to&nbsp;the&nbsp;main issue of&nbsp;formation the&nbsp;social leadership in&nbsp;the&nbsp;conditions of&nbsp;professional training the&nbsp;future social workers. Contemporary conditions indicate the&nbsp;need to&nbsp;highlight certain scientific approaches to&nbsp;leadership in&nbsp;social work. It&nbsp;is&nbsp;determined that the&nbsp;theoretical study of&nbsp;the&nbsp;phenomenon of&nbsp;“social leadership” as&nbsp;a&nbsp;social phenomenon at&nbsp;the&nbsp;present stage of&nbsp;development of&nbsp;society determines the&nbsp;search for&nbsp;criteria for&nbsp;its&nbsp;formation in&nbsp;future professionals in&nbsp;the&nbsp;social sphere. On&nbsp;the&nbsp;basis of&nbsp;substantiated criteria (motivational-value, cognitive, activity-behavioral) there are established the&nbsp;corresponding indicators that reflect the&nbsp;characteristic of&nbsp;the&nbsp;manifestation the&nbsp;levels of&nbsp;formation the&nbsp;social leadership at&nbsp;future workers in&nbsp;social work (reactive, active, proactive).<br>The&nbsp;purpose of&nbsp;the&nbsp;research is&nbsp;to determine the&nbsp;criteria, indicators and&nbsp;levels that can further influence the&nbsp;dynamics of&nbsp;social leadership in&nbsp;students&nbsp;— future social workers to&nbsp;improve the&nbsp;current state of&nbsp;society, in&nbsp;particular in&nbsp;the&nbsp;field of&nbsp;social work.<br>The realization of&nbsp;this goal involved the&nbsp;use of&nbsp;the&nbsp;following methods: scientific knowledge, analysis of&nbsp;scientific literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, systematization as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;the&nbsp;descriptive method.<br>Based on&nbsp;the&nbsp;analysis, it&nbsp;is&nbsp;characterized that the&nbsp;components of&nbsp;social leadership and&nbsp;substantiates the&nbsp;criterion, indicators and&nbsp;levels of&nbsp;its formation in&nbsp;accordance with the&nbsp;understanding of&nbsp;the&nbsp;factors of&nbsp;formation of&nbsp;social leadership of&nbsp;future social workers in&nbsp;terms of&nbsp;training.</p> Darya Bybyk Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 PRACTICES AND PERSPECTIVES OF TEACHER TRAINEES UPON ONLINE LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAMME <p>The expansion of&nbsp;instructional technologies in&nbsp;education has made it&nbsp;possible to&nbsp;learn and&nbsp;teach a&nbsp;second or&nbsp;foreign language online, without recourse to&nbsp;face-to-face teaching. A&nbsp;great deal of&nbsp;information is&nbsp;available on&nbsp;the&nbsp;varying formats and&nbsp;relative efficacy of&nbsp;online language-learning programmes.<br>Teaching and&nbsp;learning is&nbsp;one of&nbsp;the&nbsp;core activities within higher education, such as&nbsp;universities and&nbsp;colleges. Almost every university in&nbsp;the&nbsp;USA now offers some type of&nbsp;computer online courses and&nbsp;most offer online programs in&nbsp;which all or&nbsp;most of&nbsp;the&nbsp;courses are taken via electronic means with a&nbsp;minimum of&nbsp;face to&nbsp;face real personal contact between instructor and&nbsp;student. There are many instructors and&nbsp;professors who claim that this electronic instruction is&nbsp;the&nbsp;future of&nbsp;teaching and&nbsp;the&nbsp;future of&nbsp;learning. Technology brings a&nbsp;lot of&nbsp;benefits to&nbsp;online classes such as&nbsp;flexibility, reduced costs, networking, documentation, increased student time, accessibility and&nbsp;self-discipline.<br>Instructional technologies have been used extensively after the spread of COVID19. Council of Higher Education in Turkey closed down all the universities and embarked on online education by issuing a statement that all universities were free to choose the platform they wished to use. This study aims at discovering how online language teacher education programmes yielded emerging patterns and how teacher trainees’ perspectives were in relation with these online language teacher education programmes. To&nbsp;reach this aim, 275 teacher trainees at&nbsp;the&nbsp;Department of&nbsp;English Language Teaching participated in&nbsp;the&nbsp;study and&nbsp;semi-structured interviews were held with them. This discussion illuminates critical issues and&nbsp;attitudes of&nbsp;teacher trainees along with the&nbsp;challenges unique to&nbsp;programmes as&nbsp;a&nbsp;future research agenda.</p> Feryal Cubukcu Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL MEDIA AND HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: USING SOCIAL NETWORKS TO RECRUIT STUDENTS <p>The number of&nbsp;offers in&nbsp;higher education both in&nbsp;Ukraine and&nbsp;everywhere in&nbsp;the&nbsp;world is&nbsp;quite large, and&nbsp;accordingly the&nbsp;competition for&nbsp;new students is&nbsp;high. Higher education institutions (HEIs) in&nbsp;such conditions must know how to&nbsp;effectively present themselves to&nbsp;target audiences. New digital technologies and&nbsp;social media can help. Social media has become especially important during the&nbsp;quarantine restrictions associated with the&nbsp;COVID-19 pandemic.<br>Universities have to&nbsp;use the&nbsp;Internet as&nbsp;their main source of&nbsp;communication, both for&nbsp;disseminating information and&nbsp;for&nbsp;recruiting new students. As&nbsp;a&nbsp;result, the&nbsp;use of&nbsp;social media in&nbsp;higher education is&nbsp;growing rapidly, and&nbsp;HEIs are making increasing efforts to&nbsp;establish their online presence. Higher education institutions try to&nbsp;establish contact with their potential students when they study in&nbsp;high school using various media platforms, including social networks and&nbsp;messengers.</p> <p>This article is&nbsp;devoted to&nbsp;the&nbsp;theoretical analysis and&nbsp;practical research of&nbsp;using social media, in&nbsp;particular social networks, by&nbsp;higher education institutions in&nbsp;Ukraine to&nbsp;recruit students and&nbsp;maintain two-way communication with them.<br>The&nbsp;study has shown that most freshmen actively used social networks to&nbsp;search for&nbsp;information about a&nbsp;HEI and&nbsp;some of&nbsp;them maintained a&nbsp;dialogue with the&nbsp;university through these social networks before the&nbsp;admission. An&nbsp;important regularity has been defined: the&nbsp;more widely and&nbsp;qualitatively a&nbsp;higher education institution is&nbsp;presented in&nbsp;social networks, the&nbsp;more often entrants and&nbsp;students turn to&nbsp;them in&nbsp;search of&nbsp;the&nbsp;necessary information. However, social networks still remain an&nbsp;auxiliary tool, as&nbsp;the&nbsp;majority of&nbsp;Ukrainian entrants first of&nbsp;all trust the&nbsp;official websites and&nbsp;feedback of&nbsp;graduates when choosing a&nbsp;higher education institution. In&nbsp;any case, the&nbsp;higher education marketing is&nbsp;becoming increasingly digital and&nbsp;this trend doesn’t look to&nbsp;slow down anytime soon.</p> Tetiana Datsenko, Olha Vyhovska, Andrii Sinko Copyright (c) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COMPUTER-BASED TESTING: A NECESSARY EVIL OR A SENSIBLE CHOICE? <p>For many students and&nbsp;teachers working in&nbsp;online environments during the&nbsp;current pandemic crisis, the&nbsp;use of&nbsp;computers for&nbsp;educational testing is&nbsp;often an&nbsp;unavoidable predicament. This may be&nbsp;due to&nbsp;the&nbsp;fact that computer- based materials are not merely a&nbsp;useful addition to&nbsp;the&nbsp;learning and&nbsp;teaching resources, but rather the&nbsp;only option available. However, although in&nbsp;some contexts computers may indeed be&nbsp;a&nbsp;significant hindrance to&nbsp;test developers and&nbsp;test takers alike, they actually offer a&nbsp;number of&nbsp;substantial benefits.<br>It&nbsp;is&nbsp;also worth pointing out that, by&nbsp;and large, educational tests delivered through online platforms with the&nbsp;aim of&nbsp;measuring progress and&nbsp;achievement in&nbsp;learning have a&nbsp;lot in&nbsp;common with traditional paper-based tests. This article is&nbsp;thus an&nbsp;attempt at&nbsp;balancing the&nbsp;advantages and&nbsp;disadvantages of&nbsp;computerized testing with a&nbsp;view to&nbsp;finding out whether this mode of&nbsp;testing can be&nbsp;recommended as&nbsp;the&nbsp;preferred choice. Based mainly on&nbsp;a&nbsp;literature review of&nbsp;research and&nbsp;practice in&nbsp;the&nbsp;area of&nbsp;computerized and&nbsp;online educational testing, the&nbsp;paper provides a&nbsp;synthesis of&nbsp;key issues relevant to&nbsp;using electronic devices for&nbsp;the&nbsp;purpose of&nbsp;constructing, administering, and&nbsp;analyzing tests and&nbsp;assessments. In&nbsp;particular, the&nbsp;discussion focuses on&nbsp;the&nbsp;models of&nbsp;test administration, the&nbsp;merits and&nbsp;demerits of&nbsp;computer-assisted testing, the&nbsp;comparability of&nbsp;paper-based and&nbsp;computer-based test scores, as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;selected features of&nbsp;web-based testing systems, such as&nbsp;text-to-items converters, test generators, full-screen delivery mode, automated scoring (and human verification thereof), score reporting, feedback, as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;quantitative analysis of&nbsp;test scores. The&nbsp;article also puts forward some arguments in&nbsp;favour of&nbsp;developing one’s own testing application.</p> Wojciech Malec Copyright (c) 2021 The Modern Higher Education Review Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000